23 October, 2018 | 12 Safar, 1440 H

"Silence saves you from regret"

- Imam Ali (as)

Learning
imge

Core Curriculum

Section 1 - God, Religion and Islam: An Introduction
  • Topic 1.1 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 1.2 - God, Allah and Religion

  • Topic 1.3 - Introduction to Islam

  • Topic 1.4 - What is “Religion” and What’s the Point of it Anyways?

  • Topic 1.5 - A Brief Introduction to the Prophet Muhammad (s), the Prophet of Islam

Section 2 - Foundations of Islam - Theology
  • Topic 2.1 - Entering Islam: The Shahada

  • Topic 2.2 - The Usūl al-Dīn: The Fundamental Beliefs of Islam

  • Topic 2.3 - Tawhīd: The Unity and Oneness of God in Islam

  • Topic 2.4 - Adala: Divine Justice in Islam

  • Topic 2.5 - Nubuwwa: The Purpose of Prophethood in Islam

  • Topic 2.6 - Imāmah or divinely guided leadership in Islam after the Prophet Muhammad.

  • Topic 2.7 - Maʿād: The Day of Judgment in Islam

  • Topic 2.8 - The Sharīʿa: Purpose and Practice

  • Topic 2.9 - The Islamic Concept of the Nafs: Battling the Human Ego

  • Topic 2.10 - Satan, Jinns and Angels: Their Influence in the World

  • Topic 2.11 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

Section 3 - Foundations of Islam - Obligatory Acts
  • Topic 3.1 - Accepting Islam: Putting Faith into Action

  • Topic 3.2 - Jihād in Islamic Law and Spirituality

  • Topic 3.3 - Salāt: Obligatory Ritual Prayers in Islam

  • Topic 3.4 - Ritual Purity in Islamic Law: Understanding Tahāra and Najāsa

  • Topic 3.5 - The Five Categories of Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.6 - Tawalla and Tabarra, its Basics and Purpose

  • Topic 3.7 - The Purpose of Zakat and Khums in Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.8 - The Hajj Pilgrimage

  • Topic 3.9 - The Furūʿ al-Dīn: The Fundamental Practices of Islam

  • Topic 3.10 - Fasting in Islam, its Purpose, Dos and Don’ts

  • Topic 3.11 - Other Obligatory and Forbidden Acts in Islam

  • Topic 3.12 - Niyya: Religious Intention as the Foundation of Islamic Practice

  • Topic 3.13 - Commanding the Good and Forbidding Evil in Islam

Section 4 - Prophethood in Islam
  • Topic 4.1 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Childhood (PART I of III)

  • Topic 4.2 - Bio: The Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet of God (PART II of III)

  • Topic 4.3 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Character (PART III of III)

  • Topic 4.4 - The Prophet Muhammad (s) as Messenger and Teacher

  • Topic 4.5 - The Prophet and his Relationships

  • Topic 4.6 - The Prophet’s Sunnah and Hadith

  • Topic 4.7 - Ghadīr and Arafah: The Two Last Sermons of the Prophet

  • Topic 4.8 - Jesus and Mary in Islam

Section 5 - The Qur'an and Hadith
  • Topic 5.1 - Islam and Other Religions

  • Topic 5.2 - What is the Qur’an? A Short Introduction to Islam’s Holy Book

  • Topic 5.3 - The Structure of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.4 - The Quran and Islamic law

  • Topic 5.5 - The Qur’an, Allah and Humankind

  • Topic 5.6 - Hadith and Sunnah, difference and variations

  • Topic 5.7 - The Reliability of Hadiths

  • Topic 5.8 - A Reflection on Verses of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.9 - Hadith al-Thaqalayn

  • Topic 5.10 - Imam Ali (as) and Nahj al-Balagha.

  • Topic 5.11 - Taqlid and Tawḍih Al Masail Genre of Literature

Section 6 - Measuring Good and Bad in Islam
  • Topic 6.1 - The Effects of Our Actions in this World

  • Topic 6.2 - The Gray Areas of Islamic Law and Morality

  • Topic 6.3 - Heaven and Hell in Islam

  • Topic 6.4 - Life and Death in Islam

  • Topic 6.5 - Guidance According to Islam

  • Topic 6.6 - Fate and the Consequences of our Choices in Islam

  • Topic 6.7 - The Effect of Culture and Environment in Shaping our Religious Choices

  • Topic 6.8 - Major Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.9 - Why Allah Allows People to Sin

  • Topic 6.10 - Repentance and Forgiveness of Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.11 - The Three Kinds of Rights in Islam

  • Topic 6.12 - Sinning Against Others and their Delayed Punishment

  • Topic 6.13 - Kufr in Islam

  • Topic 6.14 - Trivializing the Harām

  • Topic 6.15 - Benefits of Islamic Law in this World

  • Topic 6.16 - Good and Bad Deeds: The Spiritual Consequences of our Choices

Section 7 - The Legacy of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)
  • Topic 7.1 - Islam and Knowledge: the Importance of Islamic Education

  • Topic 7.2 - The Ahl al-Kisa

  • Topic 7.3 - Imamah in the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.4 - Fatima al-Zahrah (as)

  • Topic 7.5 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam al-Hasan until Imam Muhammad al-Baqir)

  • Topic 7.6 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq until Imam Hasan al-Askari)

  • Topic 7.7 - A Brief Look at the Life and Importance of Imam al-Mahdi (aj)

  • Topic 7.8 - Salawat and Atonement in Islam

  • Topic 7.9 - The Companions (Sahaba) of the Prophet According to the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.10 - Clerical Hierarchies in Muslim Communities

  • Topic 7.11 - Mosques in Islam

  • Topic 7.12 - The Philosophy of Karbala and Majalis

  • Topic 7.13 - A Brief Biography of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)

  • Topic 7.14 - The Battle of Karbala: A Brief History

Section 8 - Islamic Relationships, Sects and Conflicts
  • Topic 8.1 - Misconceptions about Shi’ism

  • Topic 8.2 - Major Sects of Islam

  • Topic 8.3 - Islam and Religious Conflicts

  • Topic 8.4 - Islam and Rights

  • Topic 8.5 - Sunnism and Shi’ism, beginnings and historical developments.

imge

Special Topics

Section 9 - Independent Topics
  • Topic 9.1 - Muslim Converts – Welcome to Islam!

  • Topic 9.2 - Basic Dos and Don’ts of Being a Muslim

  • Topic 9.3 - Halal Food and Zabiha

  • Topic 9.4 - Family, Parents and Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.5 - Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.6 - Islam and Sex

  • Topic 9.7 - Modesty in Islam

  • Topic 9.8 - Women’s Menstruation in Islam

  • Topic 9.9 - Music, Alcohol, Drugs and Pork in Islam

  • Topic 9.10 - Islam and Science

  • Topic 9.11 - A Reading List of Islamic Knowledge

  • Topic 9.13 - Ritual Prayers and Supplications in Islam

  • Topic 9.14 - Death & Burial Rituals in Islam

  • Topic 9.15 - The Battle of Armageddon: An Islamic View

  • Topic 9.16 - The Muslim Calendar

  • Topic 9.17 - Muslims and non-Muslims in the Shariah

  • Topic 9.18 - A Timeline of Major Events in Islamic History

  • Topic 9.19 - Introducing the Qur’an: Why it is the way it is

  • Topic 9.20 - The School of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq

  • Topic 9.21 - Major Fields in Islamic Studies

  • Topic 9.22 - The Caliphate in Sunni and Shia Islam

  • Topic 9.24 - Islam, Racism and Anti-Semitism

Section 10 - Islam, Religion, and Modern Controversies
  • Topic 10.1 - Modern Fallacies about God: where Theists and Atheists Agree

  • Topic 10.2 - Tawhīd: The Muslim God according to the Prophet Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt (as)

  • Topic 10.3 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Being (Wujūd)

  • Topic 10.4 - God’s Existence: The Kalam Cosmological Argument

  • Topic 10.5 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Design

  • Topic 10.6 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 10.7 - Why did God Create Us? The Purpose of our Creation

  • Topic 10.8 - Why Humans Need Religion according to Islam

  • Topic 10.9 - Jahl and Spiritual Ignorance in Islam

  • Topic 10.11 - Do Non-Muslims Go to Hell?

The Five Categories of Islamic Law

Abstract

The five categories of action in Islamic law. These are wājib, mustahab, mubāh, makrūh, and harām. These acts are there to guide our lives and set boundaries so that we may have healthy spiritual lives.

INTRODUCTION 

 

Bismillāhir Rahmānir Rahīm, As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh. Peace be upon you brothers and sisters. 

 

Welcome back to the Muslim Converts Channel!  

There are five categories of law in Islam.  

They are the following: wājib, mustahab, mubāh, makrūh and harām. In this lesson, we will explain what these terms mean and give appropriate examples to help you understand them better. 

 

BODY OF TEXT 

 

The Messenger of Allah (s) once said: The halal is clear and the haram is clear, and between them are matters unclear that are unknown to most people. Whoever is wary of these unclear matters has absolved his religion and honor. And whoever indulges in them has indulged in the haram. It is like a shepherd who herds his sheep too close to preserved sanctuary, and they will eventually graze in it. Every king has a sanctuary, and the sanctuary of Allah is what He has made haram. There lies within the body a piece of flesh. If it is sound, the whole body is sound; and if it is corrupted, the whole body is corrupted. Verily this piece is the heart. 

 

Every single action we do, or situation we put ourselves in will affect our souls for the good or for the bad. For this reason, Allah has outlined and set guidelines and boundaries on everything we do so that our hearts may be protected from pollutants.  

 

In order to nurture us, God has set five categories in the Sharīʿa (or Islamic law). They are the following: 

 

  1.  Wājib: Wājib means that something is necessary and obligatory. It means that if we don’t perform this duty, then we become disobedient to God and are sinful. We have plenty of duties in Islam that are obligatory, like respecting our parents, praying, fasting, going to Hajj etc. Within the category of wājib, there is something called fard.  

 

Fard is a wājib act that is explicitly found in the Qur’an. If we are to translate it to English, probably the best term would be “Qur’anic obligation.” Prayer and fasting are good examples of acts that are fard in Islam since they are explicitly in the Qur’an. Fard or wājib are themselves divided into two further categories. These are called fard of wājib kifāya, and fard or wājib ʿayn. Kifāya means that something obligatory upon community until a certain number of people fulfill the obligation. When the obligation is fulfilled by some members of the community, then the others become free from the duty.  

 

However, if no one fulfills the obligation, then the sin is on all of the Islamic community. An example of this is becoming an Islamic judge (qādī). Many Muslim scholars believe that the Muslim ummah must produce judges. As long as there is a sufficient number of people becoming judges, others are relieved of the duty.  

 

ʿAyn on the other hand means that something is obligatory for everyone. A good example of this is prayer. It is incumbent on every single individual who is eligible for prayer. So if you're the right age, sane and conscious, you have no choice but to pray. 

 

  1.  Mustahab: Mustahab means recommended. It means that the act in question is not obligatory  but if one does it he or she will receive tremendous rewards from God. An example of a mustahab act is performing the minor ablution (wūdū) before sleep. 
  2.  Makrūh: Makrūh means disliked. If you do it, your not sinning, but if you keep away from it, then you will get rewards from Allah. An example of a makrūh act is divorce. It is permissible, however, it is hated by Allah. If one abstains from it, one will gain rewards from God in the Hereafter.  
  3.  Harām: Hāram means forbidden. If you do it, then you have sinned. An example of a harām act is eating pork. 
  4.  Mubāh: Mubāh is an action that is neutral, it is neither wajib, mustahab, makruh or haram. An example is drinking water regularly. If, however, you drink water so that you can stay fit and serve God better, then you will get rewards. 

 

Remember that all of these acts are subject to change depending on conditions. Something may be wājib like fasting, however, if it becomes really dangerous for your health, then it becomes haram on you. The same thing does for a mustahab act. If a mustahab act impedes on your wājib acts, then the mustahab act becomes impermissible for you.  

 

Again, something may be harām for us, but under certain conditions it may become wājib. For example, if you’re stuck in a desert and you have nothing to eat and drink except for wine and pork and you see that you may die from hunger and thirst, then it becomes wājib on you to drink wine and eat pork!   

 

On this subject, the Qur’an states: 

 

But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (i.e. the forbidden meats like pork) then surely, Allaah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” (Chapter 5, verse 3 of the Holy Qur’an) 

 

So remember, the guiding force and light behind all of these acts are our intentions. 

 

Until Next Time, Thank you for watching. As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh 

Wājib

Obligatory  

Fard

Quranic obligation 

Mustahab

Recommended act 

Mubah

Neutral act 

Makruh

Disliked act (but not forbidden) 

Haram

Forbidden act 

Wajib Kifaya

Obligatory on society until a sufficient number of people act on it. 

Wajib Ayn

Obligatory on everyone 

Niyya

Intention behind a religious act 

Q1

What is the difference between wajib and fard?

Fard is a subcategory of wajib, it is a Quranic obligation, i.e. an obligation explicitly found in the Quran. 

Q2

What is mustahab?

Mustahab is a recommended act in Islam which one gains a lot of reward for doing, but no sin for not doing it. 

Q3

What is Makruh?

Makruh is a hated act in Islam, but one gains no sin in doing it, but gains rewards from God for desisting from it. 

Q4

Can something mubah become wajib?

Yes, regularly drinking water is mubāh. However, if regularly drinking water means saving your life because of some condition you have, mubāh becomes wājib. 

Q5

How many categories of law do we have in Islamic practice?

Five. They are wājib, mustahab, mubāh, makrūh and haram. 

 

Muslim
God
Allah
Hereafter
Prophet Muhammad
Messenger of Allah
Religion
Ahl al-Bayt
Sin
Sins
Salvation
Soul
Spirit
Islamic community
Muslim ummah
wājib
fard
mustahab
mubāh
makrūh
harām
kifaya
ʿayn
niyya
Islamic law
sharīʿa
heart
spiritual heart

Islamic Laws by Sayyed as-Seestani  

Philosophy of the Islamic laws by Naser Makarem Shirazi  

The Five Schools of Islamic law by Muhammad Jawad Mughniyyah