19 August, 2018 | 7 Dhu al-Hijjah, 1439 H

"A man who sits with his family is more beloved to Allah (swt) than spending the night in worship (itikaf) in my masjid"

- The Prophet Muhammad (s)

Learning
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Core Curriculum

Section 1 - God, Religion and Islam: An Introduction
  • Topic 1.1 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 1.2 - God, Allah and Religion

  • Topic 1.3 - Introduction to Islam

  • Topic 1.4 - What is “Religion” and What’s the Point of it Anyways?

  • Topic 1.5 - A Brief Introduction to the Prophet Muhammad (s), the Prophet of Islam

Section 2 - Foundations of Islam - Theology
  • Topic 2.1 - Entering Islam: The Shahada

  • Topic 2.2 - The Usūl al-Dīn: The Fundamental Beliefs of Islam

  • Topic 2.3 - Tawhīd: The Unity and Oneness of God in Islam

  • Topic 2.4 - Adala: Divine Justice in Islam

  • Topic 2.5 - Nubuwwa: The Purpose of Prophethood in Islam

  • Topic 2.6 - Imāmah or divinely guided leadership in Islam after the Prophet Muhammad.

  • Topic 2.7 - Maʿād: The Day of Judgment in Islam

  • Topic 2.8 - The Sharīʿa: Purpose and Practice

  • Topic 2.9 - The Islamic Concept of the Nafs: Battling the Human Ego

  • Topic 2.10 - Satan, Jinns and Angels: Their Influence in the World

  • Topic 2.11 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

Section 3 - Foundations of Islam - Obligatory Acts
  • Topic 3.1 - Accepting Islam: Putting Faith into Action

  • Topic 3.2 - Jihād in Islamic Law and Spirituality

  • Topic 3.3 - Salāt: Obligatory Ritual Prayers in Islam

  • Topic 3.4 - Ritual Purity in Islamic Law: Understanding Tahāra and Najāsa

  • Topic 3.5 - The Five Categories of Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.6 - Tawalla and Tabarra, its Basics and Purpose

  • Topic 3.7 - The Purpose of Zakat and Khums in Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.8 - The Hajj Pilgrimage

  • Topic 3.9 - The Furūʿ al-Dīn: The Fundamental Practices of Islam

  • Topic 3.10 - Fasting in Islam, its Purpose, Dos and Don’ts

  • Topic 3.11 - Other Obligatory and Forbidden Acts in Islam

  • Topic 3.12 - Niyya: Religious Intention as the Foundation of Islamic Practice

  • Topic 3.13 - Commanding the Good and Forbidding Evil in Islam

Section 4 - Prophethood in Islam
  • Topic 4.1 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Childhood (PART I of III)

  • Topic 4.2 - Bio: The Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet of God (PART II of III)

  • Topic 4.3 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Character (PART III of III)

  • Topic 4.4 - The Prophet Muhammad (s) as Messenger and Teacher

  • Topic 4.5 - The Prophet and his Relationships

  • Topic 4.6 - The Prophet’s Sunnah and Hadith

  • Topic 4.7 - Ghadīr and Arafah: The Two Last Sermons of the Prophet

  • Topic 4.8 - Jesus and Mary in Islam

Section 5 - The Qur'an and Hadith
  • Topic 5.1 - Islam and Other Religions

  • Topic 5.2 - What is the Qur’an? A Short Introduction to Islam’s Holy Book

  • Topic 5.3 - The Structure of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.4 - The Quran and Islamic law

  • Topic 5.5 - The Qur’an, Allah and Humankind

  • Topic 5.6 - Hadith and Sunnah, difference and variations

  • Topic 5.7 - The Reliability of Hadiths

  • Topic 5.8 - A Reflection on Verses of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.9 - Hadith al-Thaqalayn

  • Topic 5.10 - Imam Ali (as) and Nahj al-Balagha.

  • Topic 5.11 - Taqlid and Tawḍih Al Masail Genre of Literature

Section 6 - Measuring Good and Bad in Islam
  • Topic 6.1 - The Effects of Our Actions in this World

  • Topic 6.2 - The Gray Areas of Islamic Law and Morality

  • Topic 6.3 - Heaven and Hell in Islam

  • Topic 6.4 - Life and Death in Islam

  • Topic 6.5 - Guidance According to Islam

  • Topic 6.6 - Fate and the Consequences of our Choices in Islam

  • Topic 6.7 - The Effect of Culture and Environment in Shaping our Religious Choices

  • Topic 6.8 - Major Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.9 - Why Allah Allows People to Sin

  • Topic 6.10 - Repentance and Forgiveness of Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.11 - The Three Kinds of Rights in Islam

  • Topic 6.12 - Sinning Against Others and their Delayed Punishment

  • Topic 6.13 - Kufr in Islam

  • Topic 6.14 - Trivializing the Harām

  • Topic 6.15 - Benefits of Islamic Law in this World

  • Topic 6.16 - Good and Bad Deeds: The Spiritual Consequences of our Choices

Section 7 - The Legacy of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)
  • Topic 7.1 - Islam and Knowledge: the Importance of Islamic Education

  • Topic 7.2 - The Ahl al-Kisa

  • Topic 7.3 - Imamah in the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.4 - Fatima al-Zahrah (as)

  • Topic 7.5 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam al-Hasan until Imam Muhammad al-Baqir)

  • Topic 7.6 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq until Imam Hasan al-Askari)

  • Topic 7.7 - A Brief Look at the Life and Importance of Imam al-Mahdi (aj)

  • Topic 7.8 - Salawat and Atonement in Islam

  • Topic 7.9 - The Companions (Sahaba) of the Prophet According to the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.10 - Clerical Hierarchies in Muslim Communities

  • Topic 7.11 - Mosques in Islam

  • Topic 7.12 - The Philosophy of Karbala and Majalis

  • Topic 7.13 - A Brief Biography of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)

  • Topic 7.14 - The Battle of Karbala: A Brief History

Section 8 - Islamic Relationships, Sects and Conflicts
  • Topic 8.1 - Misconceptions about Shi’ism

  • Topic 8.2 - Major Sects of Islam

  • Topic 8.3 - Islam and Religious Conflicts

  • Topic 8.4 - Islam and Rights

  • Topic 8.5 - Sunnism and Shi’ism, beginnings and historical developments.

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Special Topics

Section 9 - Independent Topics
  • Topic 9.1 - Muslim Converts – Welcome to Islam!

  • Topic 9.2 - Basic Dos and Don’ts of Being a Muslim

  • Topic 9.3 - Halal Food and Zabiha

  • Topic 9.4 - Family, Parents and Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.5 - Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.6 - Islam and Sex

  • Topic 9.7 - Modesty in Islam

  • Topic 9.8 - Women’s Menstruation in Islam

  • Topic 9.9 - Music, Alcohol, Drugs and Pork in Islam

  • Topic 9.10 - Islam and Science

  • Topic 9.11 - A Reading List of Islamic Knowledge

  • Topic 9.13 - Ritual Prayers and Supplications in Islam

  • Topic 9.14 - Death & Burial Rituals in Islam

  • Topic 9.15 - The Battle of Armageddon: An Islamic View

  • Topic 9.16 - The Muslim Calendar

  • Topic 9.17 - Muslims and non-Muslims in the Shariah

  • Topic 9.18 - A Timeline of Major Events in Islamic History

  • Topic 9.19 - Introducing the Qur’an: Why it is the way it is

  • Topic 9.20 - The School of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq

  • Topic 9.21 - Major Fields in Islamic Studies

  • Topic 9.22 - The Caliphate in Sunni and Shia Islam

  • Topic 9.24 - Islam, Racism and Anti-Semitism

Section 10 - Islam, Religion, and Modern Controversies
  • Topic 10.1 - Modern Fallacies about God: where Theists and Atheists Agree

  • Topic 10.2 - Tawhīd: The Muslim God according to the Prophet Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt (as)

  • Topic 10.3 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Being (Wujūd)

  • Topic 10.4 - God’s Existence: The Kalam Cosmological Argument

  • Topic 10.5 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Design

  • Topic 10.6 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 10.7 - Why did God Create Us? The Purpose of our Creation

  • Topic 10.8 - Why Humans Need Religion according to Islam

  • Topic 10.9 - Jahl and Spiritual Ignorance in Islam

  • Topic 10.11 - Do Non-Muslims Go to Hell?

Muslims and non-Muslims in the Shariah

Abstract

Muslims must respect the laws of non-Muslim countries when they are living in them. Muslims are also not allowed to force people to convert to Islam. 

INTRODUCTION 

 

Bismillāhir Rahmānir Rahīm, As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh. Peace be upon you brothers and sisters. 

 

Welcome back to the Muslim Converts Channel! Nothing is more contentious nowadays when it comes to Islam than what the Western media calls “Shariʿah law.” The Shariʿah literally means “the way” and is simply another word for Islamic law.  

 

The Shariʿah is God’s will upon mankind and their way to spiritual discipline and salvation in God. The Sharīʿah covers all aspects of life, from the day you were conceived in the womb up until after your death when you are buried.  

 

It is an all-encompassing system of organizing one’s life. As you’ve guessed it till now, the Sharīʿah isn’t just about punishments or asking women to cover themselves, those are only tiny parts of Islamic law.  

 

The Shariʿah also has to do with prayers, charity to the poor, taking care of orphans, marriage, helping the environment, dealing with the old and sick, and much much more.  

 

Just like the Shariʿah has something to say about Muslims, it has something to say about non-Muslims as well. It regulates the lives of Muslims who live under non-Muslim countries as well as non-Muslims who live in Muslim countries.  

 

In this lesson, we will be looking at two major issues of the law: 1) how the Shariʿah regulates the rights and obligations of Muslims living under non-Muslim governments and 2) what rights and obligations it frames for non-Muslims living under Islamic governments.  

 

BODY OF TEXT 

 

 In a hadith from the Prophet Muhammad (s) he is reported to have said: “Whenever you see a funeral procession, stand up till the procession goes ahead of you”.  

 

One day a funeral procession passed in front of him and he stood up. Some protested and complained that it was the coffin of a Jew, he said, "Is it not a living being (soul)?"  

 

The Messenger of Allah (s) also used to visit non-Muslims who were sick, including Christians and Jews.  

 

This historical background of how the Prophet Muhammad (s) related to non-Muslims is a key basis that informs much of the Shariʿah’s treatment of non-Muslims. We say this from the perspective of the Sharīʿah as understood by his Ahl al-Bayt (as) and not the violent and uneducated understanding of the Shariʿah by fringe groups that have taken up much of the media’s attention today. 

 

The Shariʿah and Non-Muslims 

 

The Qur’an is clear that no one can be forced to convert to Islam. Allah says: 

 

“Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.”  (Chapter 2, verse 256). 

 

Non-Muslims, just like Muslims, who live peacefully, have inalienable rights under the Shariʿah. These means that non-Muslims have the right to work, live in safety, access to healthcare, right to property and inheritance and all the basic rights that Muslims have.  

 

Muslims have no right to be cruel or disrespectful to non-Muslim minorities living in their countries. The Messenger of Allah (s) once said: 

 

"Beware!  Whoever is cruel and hard on a non-Muslim minority (dhimmi), curtails their rights, burdens them with more than they can bear, or takes anything from them against their free will; I (Prophet Muhammad) will complain against the person on the Day of Judgment." 

 

In another hadith, the Prophet (s): 

 

“Whoever kills a person who has a truce with the Muslims will never smell the fragrance of Paradise.” 

 

Under the Shariʿah, Muslims are obliged to pay two taxes, namely the zakat and the khums taxes. If non-Muslims are living under an Islamic government, they are not obliged to pay these two taxes as they are specific to Muslims. By the way, a non-Muslim living under and Islamic government is called a dhimmi, meaning “protected person.”  

 

Here we are differentiating between a Muslim majority country and an Islamic government because not all Muslim majority countries have Islamic governments where the Sharīʿah is the official, real and supreme law of the land. 

 

However, a Muslim government may impose another tax on them called the jizyah tax. The jizyah tax is not applicable to the poor among the non-Muslims and is only applicable to the male head of the household.  

 

The jizyah tax predates Islam and can be rooted in Zoroastrian Persia before the coming of Islam. When Islam spread to Persia early in Islam, Muslims imposed a tax system that was already there. In fact, the word jizyah is not even an Arabic word, but taken from the old Persian word gazīd or gazīt meaning poll tax. 

 

When non-Muslims pay the jizyah tax, they are not obliged to come to the defense of the country that they are living in. In other words, they don’t need to join the army whereas Muslims must join the army if their land is attacked.  

 

Muslims living in non-Muslim Majority Countries 

 

The Shariʿah obliges Muslims to obey all rules when living under a non-Muslim government as long as the rules don’t explicitly and directly ask them to disobey God. For example, if a government were to ask a Muslim to stop praying, the Muslim would be under no obligation to follow it. In cases of extreme hostility, the Shariʿah may ask or request that the Muslim leave the country. 

 

As far as we know, this isn’t the case with most non-Muslim countries, especially those in the West. Muslims are therefore urged to obey all traffic rules, tax laws, and conduct themselves as peaceful and productive citizens of their country.  

 

Remember that the Shariʿah is much, much more than just political laws. If you look at manuals of Islamic law, you will notice that most of their pages are devoted to prayer, fasting, marriage, and all sorts of rules and regulations that you can practice anywhere in the world. So if you are living in the United States, there is nothing keeping you from living your life as a full Muslim all the while obeying the countries laws and living as an upstanding citizen.  

 

Until Next Time, Thank you for watching. As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh

izyah

Poll tax for non-Muslims living under Islamic government

Dhimmi

Protected non-Muslim living under Islamic government

Sharīʿah

God’s revealed law

Q1

What is the Sharīʿah?

God’s law as revealed through the Prophet Muhammad (s)

Q2

What is the Jizyah?

Poll tax for non-Muslims living under Islamic government

Q3

What is a dhimmi?

Protected non-Muslim living under Islamic government

Q4

Can a Muslim force a non-Muslim to convert to Islam?

No, that is not allowed.

Q5

Does a Muslim who lives in a non-Muslim country have to respect its laws?

Yes

Sharīʿah
Muslims
non-Muslims
Muslims living under non-Muslim governments
jizyah
jizyah tax

N/A (controversial, better not add)