17 April, 2021 | 5 Ramadan, 1442 H

"A man who sits with his family is more beloved to Allah (swt) than spending the night in worship (itikaf) in my masjid"

- The Prophet Muhammad (s)


Core Curriculum

Section 1 - God, Religion and Islam: An Introduction
  • Topic 1.1 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 1.2 - God, Allah and Religion

  • Topic 1.3 - Introduction to Islam

  • Topic 1.4 - What is “Religion” and What’s the Point of it Anyways?

  • Topic 1.5 - A Brief Introduction to the Prophet Muhammad (s), the Prophet of Islam

Section 2 - Foundations of Islam - Theology
  • Topic 2.1 - Entering Islam: The Shahada

  • Topic 2.2 - The Usūl al-Dīn: The Fundamental Beliefs of Islam

  • Topic 2.3 - Tawhīd: The Unity and Oneness of God in Islam

  • Topic 2.4 - Adala: Divine Justice in Islam

  • Topic 2.5 - Nubuwwa: The Purpose of Prophethood in Islam

  • Topic 2.6 - Imāmah or divinely guided leadership in Islam after the Prophet Muhammad.

  • Topic 2.7 - Maʿād: The Day of Judgment in Islam

  • Topic 2.8 - The Sharīʿa: Purpose and Practice

  • Topic 2.9 - The Islamic Concept of the Nafs: Battling the Human Ego

  • Topic 2.10 - Satan, Jinns and Angels: Their Influence in the World

  • Topic 2.11 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

Section 3 - Foundations of Islam - Obligatory Acts
  • Topic 3.1 - Accepting Islam: Putting Faith into Action

  • Topic 3.2 - Jihād in Islamic Law and Spirituality

  • Topic 3.3 - Salāt: Obligatory Ritual Prayers in Islam

  • Topic 3.4 - Ritual Purity in Islamic Law: Understanding Tahāra and Najāsa

  • Topic 3.5 - The Five Categories of Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.6 - Tawalla and Tabarra, its Basics and Purpose

  • Topic 3.7 - The Purpose of Zakat and Khums in Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.8 - The Hajj Pilgrimage

  • Topic 3.9 - The Furūʿ al-Dīn: The Fundamental Practices of Islam

  • Topic 3.10 - Fasting in Islam, its Purpose, Dos and Don’ts

  • Topic 3.11 - Other Obligatory and Forbidden Acts in Islam

  • Topic 3.12 - Niyya: Religious Intention as the Foundation of Islamic Practice

  • Topic 3.13 - Commanding the Good and Forbidding Evil in Islam

Section 4 - Prophethood in Islam
  • Topic 4.1 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Childhood (PART I of III)

  • Topic 4.2 - Bio: The Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet of God (PART II of III)

  • Topic 4.3 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Character (PART III of III)

  • Topic 4.4 - The Prophet Muhammad (s) as Messenger and Teacher

  • Topic 4.5 - The Prophet and his Relationships

  • Topic 4.6 - The Prophet’s Sunnah and Hadith

  • Topic 4.7 - Ghadīr and Arafah: The Two Last Sermons of the Prophet

  • Topic 4.8 - Jesus and Mary in Islam

Section 5 - The Qur'an and Hadith
  • Topic 5.1 - Islam and Other Religions

  • Topic 5.2 - What is the Qur’an? A Short Introduction to Islam’s Holy Book

  • Topic 5.3 - The Structure of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.4 - The Quran and Islamic law

  • Topic 5.5 - The Qur’an, Allah and Humankind

  • Topic 5.6 - Hadith and Sunnah, difference and variations

  • Topic 5.7 - The Reliability of Hadiths

  • Topic 5.8 - A Reflection on Verses of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.9 - Hadith al-Thaqalayn

  • Topic 5.10 - Imam Ali (as) and Nahj al-Balagha.

  • Topic 5.11 - Taqlid and Tawḍih Al Masail Genre of Literature

Section 6 - Measuring Good and Bad in Islam
  • Topic 6.1 - The Effects of Our Actions in this World

  • Topic 6.2 - The Gray Areas of Islamic Law and Morality

  • Topic 6.3 - Heaven and Hell in Islam

  • Topic 6.4 - Life and Death in Islam

  • Topic 6.5 - Guidance According to Islam

  • Topic 6.6 - Fate and the Consequences of our Choices in Islam

  • Topic 6.7 - The Effect of Culture and Environment in Shaping our Religious Choices

  • Topic 6.8 - Major Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.9 - Why Allah Allows People to Sin

  • Topic 6.10 - Repentance and Forgiveness of Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.11 - The Three Kinds of Rights in Islam

  • Topic 6.12 - Sinning Against Others and their Delayed Punishment

  • Topic 6.13 - Kufr in Islam

  • Topic 6.14 - Trivializing the Harām

  • Topic 6.15 - Benefits of Islamic Law in this World

  • Topic 6.16 - Good and Bad Deeds: The Spiritual Consequences of our Choices

Section 7 - The Legacy of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)
  • Topic 7.1 - Islam and Knowledge: the Importance of Islamic Education

  • Topic 7.2 - The Ahl al-Kisa

  • Topic 7.3 - Imamah in the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.4 - Fatima al-Zahrah (as)

  • Topic 7.5 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam al-Hasan until Imam Muhammad al-Baqir)

  • Topic 7.6 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq until Imam Hasan al-Askari)

  • Topic 7.7 - A Brief Look at the Life and Importance of Imam al-Mahdi (aj)

  • Topic 7.8 - Salawat and Atonement in Islam

  • Topic 7.9 - The Companions (Sahaba) of the Prophet According to the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.10 - Clerical Hierarchies in Muslim Communities

  • Topic 7.11 - Mosques in Islam

  • Topic 7.12 - The Philosophy of Karbala and Majalis

  • Topic 7.13 - A Brief Biography of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)

  • Topic 7.14 - The Battle of Karbala: A Brief History


Special Topics

Section 9 - Independent Topics
  • Topic 9.1 - Muslim Converts – Welcome to Islam!

  • Topic 9.2 - Basic Dos and Don’ts of Being a Muslim

  • Topic 9.3 - Halal Food and Zabiha

  • Topic 9.4 - Family, Parents and Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.5 - Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.6 - Islam and Sex

  • Topic 9.7 - Modesty in Islam

  • Topic 9.8 - Women’s Menstruation in Islam

  • Topic 9.9 - Music, Alcohol, Drugs and Pork in Islam

  • Topic 9.10 - Islam and Science

  • Topic 9.11 - A Reading List of Islamic Knowledge

  • Topic 9.13 - Ritual Prayers and Supplications in Islam

  • Topic 9.14 - Death & Burial Rituals in Islam

  • Topic 9.15 - The Battle of Armageddon: An Islamic View

  • Topic 9.16 - The Muslim Calendar

  • Topic 9.17 - Muslims and non-Muslims in the Shariah

  • Topic 9.18 - A Timeline of Major Events in Islamic History

  • Topic 9.19 - Introducing the Qur’an: Why it is the way it is

  • Topic 9.20 - The School of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq

  • Topic 9.21 - Major Fields in Islamic Studies

  • Topic 9.22 - The Caliphate in Sunni and Shia Islam

  • Topic 9.24 - Islam, Racism and Anti-Semitism

Section 10 - Islam, Religion, and Modern Controversies
  • Topic 10.1 - Modern Fallacies about God: where Theists and Atheists Agree

  • Topic 10.2 - Tawhīd: The Muslim God according to the Prophet Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt (as)

  • Topic 10.3 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Being (Wujūd)

  • Topic 10.4 - God’s Existence: The Kalam Cosmological Argument

  • Topic 10.5 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Design

  • Topic 10.6 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 10.7 - Why did God Create Us? The Purpose of our Creation

  • Topic 10.8 - Why Humans Need Religion according to Islam

  • Topic 10.9 - Jahl and Spiritual Ignorance in Islam

  • Topic 10.11 - Do Non-Muslims Go to Hell?

Ritual Prayers and Supplications in Islam


Salat are ritual prayers in Islam. Unlike some other religions, Islam makes a theoretical distinction between supplications (duʿas) and ritual prayers (salat). Here we discuss the difference between the two, and list a few important salats and duʿas. 



Bismillāhir Rahmānir Rahīm, As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh. Peace be upon you brothers and sisters. 


Welcome back to the Muslim Converts Channel! If Islam is known by anything, it is its ritualistic prayers. You see it on TV, thousands of Muslims gathered together praying to God, bowing and prostrating at the same time. 


Islam has many kinds of ritual prayers called salat. Some of these prayers are obligatory, and some of them are recommended. In addition to this, Islam also has supplications (duʿa). In some other religions, prayers and supplications are often the same thing. In Islam, although both are performed together, they are theoretically distinct.  


Prayers are the ritual movements that a person must do. They require special conditions and ablutions before one can perform them. We’ve spoken about these conditions before so we’re not going to go into them now.  


Duʿas are a bit different. Duʿas don’t have ritual actions that accompany them, they are simply supplications that one utters to God, either during salāt or outside of it. When done outside of ritual prayers, there is no obligation to do wudu or ghusl, or be in a special place. One can make them at any time.  


Duʿas don’t have to be formal either, whereas prayers have to. If you don’t do your salāt the right way, you have to correct yourself somehow, either by making up for some missed units, or repeating the entire salāt again. In duʿas, there is no such thing.  


As long as one maintains proper respect to Allah, they are fine. So you can say them in a language other than Arabic, and you can say them in a state of ritual impurity. You can simply pour your heart out to God and you can do it anywhere at anytime. 


We do, however, have standard duʿas that are present in the Qur’an as well as in the hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as). These are important not only for their majestic beauty, but they are also important because they teach us the proper ethics of how to supplicate to God. 


As will follow, we will give you a brief list of the kinds of salat we have in Islam, as well as some of the different duʿas the Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt (as) taught us. We’re not going to cite all the kinds of prayers and duʿas that we have, but we’ll simply outline some of the most important ones in Islam. 




Obligatory Salat 


There are five main obligatory ritual prayers or salāt in Islam. They are as follows: 


  1. Salat al-Fajr (Dawn Prayer) 
  2. Salat al-Dhuhur (Noon Prayer) 
  3. Salat al-Asr (Evening Prayer) 
  4. Salat al-Maghrib (Prayer after Sunset) 
  5. Salat al-Isha (Night-time prayer) 


In addition to these prayers, we also have other salat that are obligatory in Islam. Here are some others: 


Friday Prayers (Salat al-Jumuʿa). There is a disagreement as to whether this prayer is obligatory during the absence of the 12th Imam, so please make sure to check with your Marja on the subject. 


Prayer of the Signs (Salāt al-Ayāt).  These salats or ritual prayers are performed when an eclipse, earthquake or any other event that causes fear in people takes place. It is called “Prayer of the Signs” because events like earthquakes are “signs” of Allah’s power. These prayers are reminders that Allah is the Master of this world.  


Right when we think we are under control, the witnessing of these events shows us how powerless we actually are! We are in a constant state of forgetfulness, but natural disasters have a mysterious way of reminding us of Allah.  


As a result, despite the terrifying nature of these disasters, we should find ways to be grateful for them as well for their potential as reminders of Allah. Salāt al-Ayāt is obligatory. If you happen to miss it for some reason, you need to make up for it whenever you can. 


Here are the occasions when the Salāt al-Ayāt are offered: 


  1. Earthquakes 
  2. Thunder and lighting (that instills fear in people) 
  3.  Storms that have black and red winds  
  4. Solar Eclipse 
  5. Lunar Eclipse 


Salat al-Mayyit (Prayers for the Dead). Prayers for the dead are a social obligation. This means that when someone dies, the Muslim community in one’s locality must have someone do the prayer for the deceased person. Once this obligation is fulfilled, the obligation is lifted from the other members of the community. If not, then the whole community is sinful. 


Other kinds of Salāt 


Outside these standard obligatory salat, we also have other prayers which are generally not obligatory. Here are a few: 


Salat al-Eidayn (Prayer of the Two Festivities) 


There are two festivities where prayers are offered. The first is for Eid al-Fitr which is a prayer offered during the last day of Ramadan. The other one is during Eid al-Adha in the Hajj season where one offers his or her absolute devotion to God.  


Salat al-Haja (Prayer of Need) 


The prayer of need is a two rakat prayer you offer whenever you are in great need of something. You offer the prayer with a special duʿa, and then you pour your heart out to God.  


Salat al-Layl (Late Night Prayer) 


This is a late night prayer that usually starts at midnight and ends at dawn. This prayer is one of the most recommended of prayers even if it is not obligatory. The night prayer is especially powerful as it brings about God’s grace into one’s life through His night angels. There is a tradition that states that if you want the world from God, do Salat al-Layl; if you want the Afterlife from God, also do Salat al-Layl! 




Duʿas can be both formal and non-formal. Non-formal duʿas are the ones you make yourself and speak to God in your own words. Formal duʿas are the kind of prewritten supplications that come from the Qur’an, the Prophet (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as). So all you do here is either read them from a paper or memorize them and just repeat them.  


For formal duʿas, we have many of them. Each of the obligatory and non-obligatory prayers have formal duas that are recommended that to recite after they are done. This means that each of the five obligatory prayers have their own specific prewritten duʿa.  


Remember that it is important to actually know the meanings of the words you are saying. Formal duʿas, which are in Arabic, are not like the Qur’an. You can recite Qur’an without knowing the meaning and you will still get rewards, but for duʿas, in order for them to be effective, you need to know the meanings of what you’re saying. So make sure to carry some kind of translation with you so you at least have a general idea of what you’re saying! 


Outside of prayers, there are other occasions in which we have prewritten duʿas. Please see our further reading list for books that contain these duʿas during special occasions. Here are just some examples of occasions that we have prewritten duʿas for: 


  1. Duʿa for attaining paradise 
  2. Duʿa for release from prison 
  3. Duʿa for avoiding bad thoughts and temptations 
  4. Duʿa for having a child 
  5. Duʿa for wealth and prosperity 
  6. Duʿa for decrease in debts  


These are just some examples. Before we let you go though, remember that duʿas are not magic spells. In the end, they’re acceptance by God are dependent on multiple factors. For example, God may not grant our dua if He sees that it will destroy us in the Hereafter, or if we keep sinning over and over again. 


What this means is that there is no guarantee that we will get from God what we want. The only guarantee is that we get from God what He deems fit. 


Until Next Time, Thank you for watching. As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh 







salat al-eidayn
eid al-adha
eid al-fitr
salāt al-ayāt

Further Reading from Islamiclibrary.com