21 June, 2018 | 7 Shawwal, 1439 H

"What corrupts generosity is mentioning it."

- The Prophet Muhammad (s)

Learning
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Core Curriculum

Section 1 - God, Religion and Islam: An Introduction
  • Topic 1.1 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 1.2 - God, Allah and Religion

  • Topic 1.3 - Introduction to Islam

  • Topic 1.4 - What is “Religion” and What’s the Point of it Anyways?

  • Topic 1.5 - A Brief Introduction to the Prophet Muhammad (s), the Prophet of Islam

Section 2 - Foundations of Islam - Theology
  • Topic 2.1 - Entering Islam: The Shahada

  • Topic 2.2 - The Usūl al-Dīn: The Fundamental Beliefs of Islam

  • Topic 2.3 - Tawhīd: The Unity and Oneness of God in Islam

  • Topic 2.4 - Adala: Divine Justice in Islam

  • Topic 2.5 - Nubuwwa: The Purpose of Prophethood in Islam

  • Topic 2.6 - Imāmah or divinely guided leadership in Islam after the Prophet Muhammad.

  • Topic 2.7 - Maʿād: The Day of Judgment in Islam

  • Topic 2.8 - The Sharīʿa: Purpose and Practice

  • Topic 2.9 - The Islamic Concept of the Nafs: Battling the Human Ego

  • Topic 2.10 - Satan, Jinns and Angels: Their Influence in the World

  • Topic 2.11 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

Section 3 - Foundations of Islam - Obligatory Acts
  • Topic 3.1 - Accepting Islam: Putting Faith into Action

  • Topic 3.2 - Jihād in Islamic Law and Spirituality

  • Topic 3.3 - Salāt: Obligatory Ritual Prayers in Islam

  • Topic 3.4 - Ritual Purity in Islamic Law: Understanding Tahāra and Najāsa

  • Topic 3.5 - The Five Categories of Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.6 - Tawalla and Tabarra, its Basics and Purpose

  • Topic 3.7 - The Purpose of Zakat and Khums in Islamic Law

  • Topic 3.8 - The Hajj Pilgrimage

  • Topic 3.9 - The Furūʿ al-Dīn: The Fundamental Practices of Islam

  • Topic 3.10 - Fasting in Islam, its Purpose, Dos and Don’ts

  • Topic 3.11 - Other Obligatory and Forbidden Acts in Islam

  • Topic 3.12 - Niyya: Religious Intention as the Foundation of Islamic Practice

  • Topic 3.13 - Commanding the Good and Forbidding Evil in Islam

Section 4 - Prophethood in Islam
  • Topic 4.1 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Childhood (PART I of III)

  • Topic 4.2 - Bio: The Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet of God (PART II of III)

  • Topic 4.3 - A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Character (PART III of III)

  • Topic 4.4 - The Prophet Muhammad (s) as Messenger and Teacher

  • Topic 4.5 - The Prophet and his Relationships

  • Topic 4.6 - The Prophet’s Sunnah and Hadith

  • Topic 4.7 - Ghadīr and Arafah: The Two Last Sermons of the Prophet

  • Topic 4.8 - Jesus and Mary in Islam

Section 5 - The Qur'an and Hadith
  • Topic 5.1 - Islam and Other Religions

  • Topic 5.2 - What is the Qur’an? A Short Introduction to Islam’s Holy Book

  • Topic 5.3 - The Structure of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.4 - The Quran and Islamic law

  • Topic 5.5 - The Qur’an, Allah and Humankind

  • Topic 5.6 - Hadith and Sunnah, difference and variations

  • Topic 5.7 - The Reliability of Hadiths

  • Topic 5.8 - A Reflection on Verses of the Holy Qur’an

  • Topic 5.9 - Hadith al-Thaqalayn

  • Topic 5.10 - Imam Ali (as) and Nahj al-Balagha.

  • Topic 5.11 - Taqlid and Tawḍih Al Masail Genre of Literature

Section 6 - Measuring Good and Bad in Islam
  • Topic 6.1 - The Effects of Our Actions in this World

  • Topic 6.2 - The Gray Areas of Islamic Law and Morality

  • Topic 6.3 - Heaven and Hell in Islam

  • Topic 6.4 - Life and Death in Islam

  • Topic 6.5 - Guidance According to Islam

  • Topic 6.6 - Fate and the Consequences of our Choices in Islam

  • Topic 6.7 - The Effect of Culture and Environment in Shaping our Religious Choices

  • Topic 6.8 - Major Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.9 - Why Allah Allows People to Sin

  • Topic 6.10 - Repentance and Forgiveness of Sins in Islam

  • Topic 6.11 - The Three Kinds of Rights in Islam

  • Topic 6.12 - Sinning Against Others and their Delayed Punishment

  • Topic 6.13 - Kufr in Islam

  • Topic 6.14 - Trivializing the Harām

  • Topic 6.15 - Benefits of Islamic Law in this World

  • Topic 6.16 - Good and Bad Deeds: The Spiritual Consequences of our Choices

Section 7 - The Legacy of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)
  • Topic 7.1 - Islam and Knowledge: the Importance of Islamic Education

  • Topic 7.2 - The Ahl al-Kisa

  • Topic 7.3 - Imamah in the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.4 - Fatima al-Zahrah (as)

  • Topic 7.5 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam al-Hasan until Imam Muhammad al-Baqir)

  • Topic 7.6 - A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq until Imam Hasan al-Askari)

  • Topic 7.7 - A Brief Look at the Life and Importance of Imam al-Mahdi (aj)

  • Topic 7.8 - Salawat and Atonement in Islam

  • Topic 7.9 - The Companions (Sahaba) of the Prophet According to the Qur’an

  • Topic 7.10 - Clerical Hierarchies in Muslim Communities

  • Topic 7.11 - Mosques in Islam

  • Topic 7.12 - The Philosophy of Karbala and Majalis

  • Topic 7.13 - A Brief Biography of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as)

  • Topic 7.14 - The Battle of Karbala: A Brief History

Section 8 - Islamic Relationships, Sects and Conflicts
  • Topic 8.1 - Misconceptions about Shi’ism

  • Topic 8.2 - Major Sects of Islam

  • Topic 8.3 - Islam and Religious Conflicts

  • Topic 8.4 - Islam and Rights

  • Topic 8.5 - Sunnism and Shi’ism, beginnings and historical developments.

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Special Topics

Section 9 - Independent Topics
  • Topic 9.1 - Muslim Converts – Welcome to Islam!

  • Topic 9.2 - Basic Dos and Don’ts of Being a Muslim

  • Topic 9.3 - Halal Food and Zabiha

  • Topic 9.4 - Family, Parents and Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.5 - Marriage in Islam

  • Topic 9.6 - Islam and Sex

  • Topic 9.7 - Modesty in Islam

  • Topic 9.8 - Women’s Menstruation in Islam

  • Topic 9.9 - Music, Alcohol, Drugs and Pork in Islam

  • Topic 9.10 - Islam and Science

  • Topic 9.11 - A Reading List of Islamic Knowledge

  • Topic 9.13 - Ritual Prayers and Supplications in Islam

  • Topic 9.14 - Death & Burial Rituals in Islam

  • Topic 9.15 - The Battle of Armageddon: An Islamic View

  • Topic 9.16 - The Muslim Calendar

  • Topic 9.17 - Muslims and non-Muslims in the Shariah

  • Topic 9.18 - A Timeline of Major Events in Islamic History

  • Topic 9.19 - Introducing the Qur’an: Why it is the way it is

  • Topic 9.20 - The School of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq

  • Topic 9.21 - Major Fields in Islamic Studies

  • Topic 9.22 - The Caliphate in Sunni and Shia Islam

  • Topic 9.24 - Islam, Racism and Anti-Semitism

Section 10 - Islam, Religion, and Modern Controversies
  • Topic 10.1 - Modern Fallacies about God: where Theists and Atheists Agree

  • Topic 10.2 - Tawhīd: The Muslim God according to the Prophet Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt (as)

  • Topic 10.3 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Being (Wujūd)

  • Topic 10.4 - God’s Existence: The Kalam Cosmological Argument

  • Topic 10.5 - God’s Existence: The Argument From Design

  • Topic 10.6 - The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain

  • Topic 10.7 - Why did God Create Us? The Purpose of our Creation

  • Topic 10.8 - Why Humans Need Religion according to Islam

  • Topic 10.9 - Jahl and Spiritual Ignorance in Islam

  • Topic 10.11 - Do Non-Muslims Go to Hell?

Abstract

The Muslim calendar is different from the Western calendar, here we look into the details of the calendar and see what makes it unique.

INTRODUCTION

 

Bismillāhir Rahmānir Rahīm, As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh. Peace be upon you brothers and sisters.

 

Welcome back to the Muslim Converts Channel! Not many new converts to Islam realize that Islam has a different calendar until they fast for the first time. They realize that Ramadan is a month in the Islamic calendar. They also realize that how months go by in Islam is kinda weird and different from what they’re used to with the standard Gregorian calendar in the West.

 

December happens sometime during the winter and it stays the same. Yet when it comes to Islamic months like Ramadan, it changes every year. One year Ramadan will be in the summer, and a couples of years later it will be in the winter.

 

In this lesson, we’re going to go into some of the details of the calendar, how it works and what the months are as well as some of its special dates.

 

BODY OF TEXT

 

Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him]. (Chapter 9, verse 36 of the Holy Qur’an)

 

The Muslim or Islamic calendar is officially known as the Hijri calendar. The word hijri comes from the word Hijrah, which means migration. More specifically, it refers to the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) migration from Mecca to Medina when he was fleeing his assassins.

 

The migration therefore marks year one in the Muslim calendar. The Muslim calendar has 12 months just like the Gregorian calendar, and it has around 354 or 355 days.

 

The Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar. The difference between the solar and lunar calendar is that the solar calendar is a measure of the earth’s rotation around the sun which is around 365 days. The lunar calendar is a measure of the moon’s rotation around the earth which is about 354 days. For this reason, the lunar calendar is shorter so you will see a drastic change in a month’s season as the years ago by.

 

The current year in the Islamic calendar is 1437 and there is usually an “A.H” that follows it, meaning “After Hijrah.”

 

The names of the Islamic months are as follows:

 

  1. Muharram: Muharram means forbidden or sacred and it is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is called so because battles are forbidden in this month. It is also the month where Imam al-Husayn (as) was martyred. This day is called Ashura which is on the 10th of Muharram.
  2. Safar: Safar the second month of the Islamic calendar. It means “void” as Safar was usually the month of battles and things were looted until nothing was left. This month is important as mourning for Imam al-Husayn (as) still continues.
  3. Rabi al-Awwal: Rabi al-Awwal means “the first spring” and is the third month of the Islamic calendar. The month is important as it is the month when the Messenger of Allah was born in.
  4. Rabi al-Thani: Rabi al-Thani means “the second spring” and is the fourth month of the Islamic calendar. This month is important as it is when the birth of the 11th Imam, Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) was born.
  5. Jumada al-Awwal: Jumada al-Awwal is the fifth month. The word Jumada comes from a word meaning “parched land” as this was a month of no rain and dryness. This month is important as it marks the birthday of Zainab, daughter of Imam Ali (as) and sister of Imam al-Husayn (as).
  6. Jumada al-Thani: Jumada al-Thani is the sixth month. It is important as it marks the birth and death of the Prophet Muhammad’s daughter, Fatimah al-Zahra. These days were the 3rd and 20th days of the month respectively.
  7. Rajab: Rajab is the 7th month of the Islamic calendar. The word means respect as it was a month where fighting was prohibited in pre-Islamic times. This month is important on many grounds, above all, Imam Ali (as) was born on the 13th of this month.
  8. Sha'ban: The month of Sha'ban is the 8th month. It means to separate as it is a time when Arabs split up to search for water. The month is one of the most important ones as the 15th of the month marks the birth day of our 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi (aj).
  9. Ramadan: The month of Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. Ramadan is the month in which the Qur’an was revealed, and it also marks the month where Muslims fast for 30 days. The 21st of the month of Ramadan is when Imam Ali (as) died.
  10. Shawwal: The month of Shawwal is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. Shawwal means to “carry” as it is the month where female camels carried their fetus in their wombs. On the first of the month, Muslims celebrate Eid al-Fitr marking the end of Ramadan. The 15th of Shawwal also marks the death of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as).
  11. Dhu al-Qa'dah or al-Qi'dah: This is the 11th month. It means “possessor of truce” as it is a month where battle used to be forbidden. This month is important as it marks the birthday of our 8th Imam, Ali al-Rida (as). It also marks the death of our 9th Imam, Muhammad al-Jawad (as).
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah: Dhu al-Hijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar. Dhu al-Hijjah means “possessor of the pilgrimage” as it marks the month of pilgrimage or hajj in Islam. The Hajj is performed on the 8th, 9th and 10th of this month. The day of Arafah takes place on the 9th. Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice for the Pilgrimage), the second most important festival of the Islamic calendar, takes place on the 10th of this month. This month also marks the death of our fifth Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir (as) on the 7th of the month. For more information on the Hajj, please see our previous lessons.

 

Until Next Time, Thank you for watching. As-salāmu ʿAlaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh

Hijri

The word hijri comes from the word Hijrah, which means migration. More specifically, it refers to the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) migration from Mecca to Medina when he was fleeing his assassins.

Muharram

First month of the Islamic calendar.

Safar

Safar the second month of the Islamic calendar.

Rabi al-Awwal

Rabi al-Awwal means “the first spring” and is the third month of the Islamic calendar.  

Rabi al-Thani

Rabi al-Thani means “the second spring” and is the fourth month of the Islamic calendar.

Jumada al-Awwal

Jumada al-Awwal is the fifth month of the Islamic calendar.

Jumada al-Thani

Jumada al-Thani is the sixth month.

Rajab

Rajab is the 7th month of the Islamic calendar. 

Sha'ban

The month of Sha'ban is the 8th month of the Islamic calendar.

Ramadan

The month of Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. 

Shawwal

The month of Shawwal is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. 

Dhu al-Qa'dah or al-Qi'dah

This is the 11th month of the Islamic calendar.

Dhu al-Hijjah

Dhu al-Hijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar.

Q1

What does the word Hijri mean?

The word hijri comes from the word Hijrah, which means migration. More specifically, it refers to the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) migration from Mecca to Medina when he was fleeing his assassins.

Q2

How many months are there in the Hijri calendar?

12

Q3

When did the Hijrah begin?

When the Prophet (s) migrated to Medina from Mecca.

Q4

How many days is the Muslim calendar?

354-355 days.

Q5

What is the hijri year now?

As of today, the year 2016, it is 1437

Muharram
Safar
Rabi al-Awwal
Rabi al-Thani
Jumada al-Awwal
Jumada al-Thani
Rajab Sha'ban
Ramadan
Shawwal
Dhu al-Qa'dah
Dhu al-Qi'dah
Dhu al-Hijjah
Islamic calendar
Muslim calendar
Hijri calendar
Hijrah

Further Reading from Islamiclibrary.com