14 December, 2018 | 5 Rabi al-Thani, 1440 H

"What corrupts generosity is mentioning it."

- The Prophet Muhammad (s)

Glossaries

Core Curriculum

 
 

1 God, Religion and Islam: An Introduction


 
1.1 The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain Download Topic

Word : The emotional problem of evil

Meaning : People’s dislike or even hatred of God who permits suffering in the world. They are angry that God doesn’t do anything about it.

Word : The intellectual problem of evil

Meaning : This problem sees God and evil as mutually incompatible from a logical perspective.


 
1.2 God, Allah and Religion Download Topic

Word : Allah

Meaning : Arabic word for God

Word : Deism

Meaning : Belief in God without belief in religion


 
1.3 Introduction to Islam Download Topic

Word : Mecca

Meaning : city in modern day Saudi Arabia, the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) place of birth.

Word : Abrahamic religion

Meaning : Religion that traces itself back to the Prophet Abraham (as)

Word : Orthodoxy

Meaning : right creed

Word : Orthopraxy

Meaning : right practice


 
1.4 What is “Religion” and What’s the Point of it Anyways? Download Topic

Word : Dīn

Meaning : Way of Life, Arabic term for Religion 


 
1.5 A Brief Introduction to the Prophet Muhammad (s), the Prophet of Islam Download Topic

Word : Ismāʿīl

Meaning :  Ishmael 

Word : Hanif

Meaning : Monotheist follower of Abraham (as) in pre-Islamic Arabia   

Word : Hawa

Meaning : the carnal desires of the self 

Word : Al-Amīn

Meaning : the truthful one, a name given to the Prophet Muhammad (s) as he was always truthful. 


 
 

2 Foundations of Islam - Theology


 
2.1 Entering Islam: The Shahada Download Topic

Word : Shahāda

Meaning : Testimony of faith that brings one into Islam

Word : Polytheism

Meaning : Belief in multiple gods

Word : Monotheism

Meaning : Belief in one God

Word : Dīn

Meaning : Religion

Word : Ghusl

Meaning : The major ablution (bath or shower) required in Islam so as to be able to perform obligatory ritual practices.  


 
2.2 The Usūl al-Dīn: The Fundamental Beliefs of Islam Download Topic

Word : Tawhīd

Meaning : Absolute Oneness and Unity of God 

Word : Adalah

Meaning : Divine Justice 

Word : Nubuwwa

Meaning : Prophethood 

Word : Imamah

Meaning : Divine Leadership 

Word : Qiyāmah

Meaning : Day of Resurrection, also known as the Day of Judgment 

Word : Usūl al-Dīn

Meaning : Fundamental Beliefs of Islam 


 
2.3 Tawhīd: The Unity and Oneness of God in Islam Download Topic

Word : Shirk

Meaning : Polytheism, idol worship, associating partners with Allah 

Word : Tawhīd

Meaning : Absolute Oneness and Unity of the Muslim God

Word : Ibāda

Meaning : worship, lit. means “to enslave oneself to something” 

Word : uṣūl al-dīn

Meaning : the five foundational beliefs of Islam 


 
2.4 Adala: Divine Justice in Islam Download Topic

Word : Adāla

Meaning : divine justice

Word : Subjective

Meaning : Depends on human opinion 

Word : Objective

Meaning : A truth that does not depend on human opinion 

Word : Tāghūt

Meaning : Crossing the boundaries of Allah, like idol worship or making corruption 

Word : Al-Ghanī

Meaning : One of God’s names and attributes, means the “Self-Sufficient”  

Word : Al-Ālim

Meaning : God as the All-Knowing   

Word : Al-Hakīm

Meaning : God as the All-Wise 

Word : Tawhīd

Meaning : Oneness and Unity of God 


 
2.5 Nubuwwa: The Purpose of Prophethood in Islam Download Topic

Word : Wahī

Meaning : direct revelation by God through the medium of the Archangel Gabriel 

Word : Ilhām

Meaning : divine inspiration 

Word : Nabī

Meaning : Prophet 

Word : Sunnah

Meaning : Sunnah is the tradition, practice or culture of the Prophet. 

Word : Hadīth

Meaning : The oral tradition where the Sunnah is preserved.

Word : Rasūl

Meaning : Messenger who brings a whole system of laws. All rasūls are nabīs. 


 
2.6 Imāmah or divinely guided leadership in Islam after the Prophet Muhammad. Download Topic

Word : Imām of the Ahl al-Bayt (as)

Meaning : Divinely appointed leader after the Prophet Muhammad (s) 

Word : Ahl al-Bayt (as)

Meaning : The divinely selected guides for mankind from among the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) Holy Household. 

Word : Sunnism

Meaning : Those who follow Sunni Islam principally follow the opinions of the Prophet Muhammad's companions and the immediate followers of those companions.   

Word : Shi’ism

Meaning : Those who follow Shi’i Islam are those who follow the opinion of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt (as)    

Word : 12 Imāms

Meaning : The twelve divinely appointed religious guides for mankind. The first Imām is the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad (s) called Ali ibn Abi Talib. The rest of the eleven Imams are descendants of Ali.   

Word : Imāma

Meaning : Divinely appointed leadership after the Prophet Muhammad (s). 

Word : Wahī

Meaning : direct revelation by Allah through the medium of the Archangel Gabriel. It is conditioned upon propagation. 

Word : Ilhām

Meaning : Unmediated divine knowledge which God inspires His select few with, at least in its technical sense. 


 
2.7 Maʿād: The Day of Judgment in Islam Download Topic

Word : Isrāfīl

Meaning : Angel who brings the Day of Judgment

Word : Yawm al-Dīn

Meaning : Day of Reckoning

Word : Qiyāma

Meaning : Day of Resurrection (Day of Judgment)  

Word : Maʿād

Meaning : Day of Resurrection (Day of Judgment)

Word : Munkir and Nakīr

Meaning : Angels in the grave who question about our relationship to God

Word : Mahdī

Meaning : The 12th Imām who will come in the end of times and spread good and justice around the world.


 
2.8 The Sharīʿa: Purpose and Practice Download Topic

Word : Sharīʿa

Meaning : life or way of obedience and discipline towards God

Word : Dunyā

Meaning : the ephemeral aspect of the world

Word : ʿĀlam

Meaning : the physical world, world of creation

Word : God as the Final Judge

Meaning : In Islam, God is the ultimate judge of all of mankind’s deeds. 


 
2.9 The Islamic Concept of the Nafs: Battling the Human Ego Download Topic

Word : Fitrah

Meaning : Spiritual self

Word : Hawa

Meaning : Whims

Word : Shaytan

Meaning : The Devil, Satan 

Word : Nafs

Meaning : Inner self or egoic self that commands to evil 

Word : Al-Qalb al-Salīm

Meaning : The pure heart that is devoid of sin and full of the remembrance of God. This is the goal of mankind. 

Word : Pride

Meaning : In Islam, it is thinking we are better than others and/or know more than God. 


 
2.10 Satan, Jinns and Angels: Their Influence in the World Download Topic

Word : Jinns

Meaning : Spiritual/intelligent beings made out of smokeless fire. They are invisible unless they take on make themselves visible.

Word : Angels

Meaning : Beings made out of light, they cannot sin and obey every command of Allah.

Word : Nafs

Meaning : It is our inner self, sometimes called the “self/ego that commands evil.” This aspect of the nafs must be fought against.

Word : Shaytān

Meaning : Satan, the Devil.

Word : Iblīs

Meaning : Leader of the Jinn, he is known as Satan or the Devil in English. He is a Jinn and not a fallen angel. 


 
2.11 The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain Download Topic

Word : The emotional problem of evil

Meaning : People’s dislike or even hatred of God who permits suffering in the world. They are angry that God doesn’t do anything about it.

Word : The intellectual problem of evil

Meaning : This problem sees God and evil as mutually incompatible from a logical perspective.


 
 

3 Foundations of Islam - Obligatory Acts


 
3.1 Accepting Islam: Putting Faith into Action Download Topic

Word : Straight Path of Allah

Meaning : The path of correct belief and action that lead to salvation

Word : Islam

Meaning : submission

Word : ʿAmal

Meaning : religious action, ritual


 
3.2 Jihād in Islamic Law and Spirituality Download Topic

Word : Nafs al-Mut’mainnah

Meaning : The self which has attained peace and tranquility, and does not need to struggle as much against desires as they have been pacified. 

Word : Nafs al-Lawwāma

Meaning : The self which struggles against immorality and evil

Word : Nafs al-Ammāra

Meaning : The ego or self that commands to evil

Word : Jihad al-Asghar

Meaning : Minor or Lesser Jihad, struggle and self-defense against hostile powers

Word : Jihad al-Akbar

Meaning : Greater Jihad, struggle against the evil self

Word : Jihad

Meaning : Struggle against Evil


 
3.3 Salāt: Obligatory Ritual Prayers in Islam Download Topic

Word : Salāt al-Mayyit

Meaning : Funeral prayers

Word : Duʿā

Meaning : Supplication

Word : Salāt al-Ayāt

Meaning : Prayers performed when special (awesome) natural events happen

Word : Nāfila

Meaning : Supererogatory prayers offered after one’s daily obligatory salāt

Word : Mustahab

Meaning : Recommended


 
3.4 Ritual Purity in Islamic Law: Understanding Tahāra and Najāsa Download Topic

Word : Tahāra

Meaning : Ritual purity 

Word : Najāsa

Meaning : Ritual impurity 

Word : Janāba

Meaning : State of major ritual impurity which requires ghusl 

Word : Tāhir

Meaning : A person or object that is ritually pure 

Word : Najis

Meaning : A person or object that is ritually impure 

Word : Ghusl

Meaning : Major ablution 

Word : Wudū

Meaning : Minor ablution 

Word : Ghusl Irtimāsī

Meaning : Major ablution by way of completely submerging oneself under water. 

Word : Tayamum

Meaning : A method of ritual purification by using earth or dust. 


 
3.5 The Five Categories of Islamic Law Download Topic

Word : Wājib

Meaning : Obligatory  

Word : Fard

Meaning : Quranic obligation 

Word : Mustahab

Meaning : Recommended act 

Word : Mubah

Meaning : Neutral act 

Word : Makruh

Meaning : Disliked act (but not forbidden) 

Word : Haram

Meaning : Forbidden act 

Word : Wajib Kifaya

Meaning : Obligatory on society until a sufficient number of people act on it. 

Word : Wajib Ayn

Meaning : Obligatory on everyone 

Word : Niyya

Meaning : Intention behind a religious act 


 
3.6 Tawalla and Tabarra, its Basics and Purpose Download Topic

Word : Tawalla

Meaning : Love for the Prophet (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as). 

Word : Tabarra

Meaning : Disassociating from the enemies of the Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt (as). 

Word : Wala

Meaning : To befriend 

Word : Baraa

Meaning : To be free from, to disassociate  

Word : Umbrella term

Meaning : A term that covers a broad selection of words that fall under the same category.  


 
3.7 The Purpose of Zakat and Khums in Islamic Law Download Topic

Word : Khums

Meaning : 1/5th tax one pays on one’s sitting income 

Word : Zakat

Meaning : 2.5% tax on one’s sitting tangible income 

Word : Marja

Meaning : A high ranking scholar of law that is a source of legal emulation   


 
3.8 The Hajj Pilgrimage Download Topic

Word : Muzdalifa

Meaning : A plain where Muslims must lead prayer vigils during the Hajj pilgrimage. 

Word : Safa and Marwa

Meaning : Hills Muslims must pace between during Hajj rituals.

Word : Umrah

Meaning : The lesser pilgrimage. Similar to Hajj, but performed outside the Hajj season. It is not obligatory.

Word : Day of Arafah

Meaning : Most important day of the Hajj pilgrimage, 9th day of the Islamic month of Dhū al-Hijjah. 

Word : Zamzam

Meaning : Spring of water in Mecca, appeared miraculously when the Prophet Ismāʿīl (as) was dying of thirst. 

Word : Hajj

Meaning : Pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims must perform at least once in their lifetime. 

Word : Kaʿba

Meaning : Cube shaped building which is the direction for Muslim prayers. It is also the building around which Muslims circumambulate during the Hajj pilgrimage. 

Word : Tawāf

Meaning : Circumambulation around the Kaʿba seven times in counter-clock wise fashion. 


 
3.9 The Furūʿ al-Dīn: The Fundamental Practices of Islam Download Topic

Word : Furūʿ al-Dīn

Meaning : The 10 fundamental obligatory practices of Islam   

Word : Salāt

Meaning : five obligatory daily prayers 

Word : Siyām

Meaning : Fasting during the month of Ramadan 

Word : Hajj

Meaning : Pilgrimage to Mecca 

Word : Zakat

Meaning : obligatory tax for the poor

Word : Jihad

Meaning : Struggling for the sake of God 

Word : Amr bi al-Maʿrūf

Meaning : Commanding the Good 

Word : Nahī ʿan al-Munkar

Meaning : Forbidding Evil 

Word : Tawalla

Meaning : Loving the Prophet (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)

Word : Tabarra

Meaning : Disassociating from the enemies of the Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)   

Word : Wājib

Meaning : Obligatory act 

Word : Farḍ

Meaning : Obligatory act that is in the Qur’an 

Word : Tazkīyah

Meaning : spiritual purification 

Word : Khums

Meaning : 1/5th tax on one’s sitting or special-sourced income 


 
3.10 Fasting in Islam, its Purpose, Dos and Don’ts Download Topic

Word : Siyām

Meaning :  Fasting

Word : Ramadan

Meaning : Month in which one has to fast for 30 days 

Word : Eid al-Fitr

Meaning : Festival marking the end of the 30 day long fast in Ramadan 

Word : Suhūr

Meaning : predawn breakfast before a fasting day 

Word : Iftār

Meaning : breaking one’s fast at sundown or sunset. 


 
3.11 Other Obligatory and Forbidden Acts in Islam Download Topic

Word : Zina

Meaning : illicit intercourse

Word : Ghība

Meaning : gossiping, backbiting

Word : Nafaqa

Meaning : sustenance to one’s wife and children

Word : Ribā

Meaning : usury and shark loans

Word : Kabā’ir (sing. Kabīra)

Meaning : major sin


 
3.12 Niyya: Religious Intention as the Foundation of Islamic Practice Download Topic

Word : Niyya

Meaning :  Intention 

Word : Good Niyya

Meaning :  Doing something with the intention of getting closer to God 

Word : Bad Niyya

Meaning : Performing a religious action for the sake of something or someone other than God   

Word : Qurbatan ila-Allah

Meaning :  Wanting to reach closeness to Allah   


 
3.13 Commanding the Good and Forbidding Evil in Islam Download Topic

Word : Amr bi al-Maʿrūf

Meaning : Commanding the Good

Word : Nahī ʿan al-Munkar

Meaning : Forbidding Evil

Word : Marjaʿ

Meaning : Highest source of legal authority and emulation in Shia Islam

Word : Jihad

Meaning : Struggle, either against external aggressing forces or struggling against one’s evil desires.

Word : Ummah

Meaning : Muslim community


 
 

4 Prophethood in Islam


 
4.1 A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Childhood (PART I of III) Download Topic

Word : Banu Hāshim

Meaning : Clan of the Prophet

Word : Quraysh

Meaning : Tribe of the Prophet

Word : Cave of Hira

Meaning : Cave the Prophet meditated and prayed in

Word : Hanīf

Meaning : An Arab who followed the monotheistic message of Abraham

Word : Mecca

Meaning : City the Prophet was born in

Word : Medina

Meaning : City the Prophet migrated to and found as his permanent base.

Word : Hijrah

Meaning : The Prophet’s migration to Medina in the year 622.

Word : Khadījah

Meaning : The first wife of the Prophet

Word : Abū Ṭālib

Meaning : The uncle of the Prophet

Word : ʿAbd Al-Muṭṭalib

Meaning : The Prophet’s grandfather

Word : Qutb

Meaning : literally means pole. It is that perfect human being who is the cosmic and universal leader of all of God’s saints and the mediator between the divine and human realms. His presence is necessary for the continued existence of the world.  


 
4.2 Bio: The Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet of God (PART II of III) Download Topic

Word : Banu Hāshim

Meaning : Clan of the Prophet

Word : Quraysh

Meaning : Tribe of the Prophet

Word : Cave of Hira

Meaning :  Cave the Prophet meditated and prayed in

Word : Hanīf

Meaning : An Arab who followed the monotheistic message of Abraham

Word : Mecca

Meaning : City the Prophet was born in

Word : Medina

Meaning : City the Prophet migrated to and found as his permanent base.

Word : Hijrah

Meaning : the Prophet’s migration to Medina in the year 622.

Word : Khadījah

Meaning : The first wife of the Prophet

Word : Abū Ṭālib

Meaning :  The uncle of the Prophet

Word : ʿAbd Al-Muṭṭalib

Meaning : The Prophet’s grandfather

Word : Qutb

Meaning : literally means pole. It is that perfect human being who is the cosmic and universal leader of all of God’s saints and the mediator between the divine and human realms. His presence is necessary for the continued existence of the world.


 
4.3 A Brief Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (s): The Prophet’s Character (PART III of III) Download Topic

Word : Banu Hāshim

Meaning : Clan of the Prophet

Word : Quraysh

Meaning : Tribe of the Prophet

Word : Cave of Hira

Meaning : Cave the Prophet meditated and prayed in

Word : Hanīf

Meaning : An Arab who followed the monotheistic message of Abraham

Word : Mecca

Meaning : City the Prophet was born in

Word : Medina

Meaning : City the Prophet migrated to and found as his permanent base.

Word : Hijrah

Meaning : the Prophet’s migration to Medina in the year 622.

Word : Khadījah

Meaning : The first wife of the Prophet

Word : Abū Ṭālib

Meaning : The uncle of the Prophet

Word : ʿAbd Al-Muṭṭalib

Meaning : The Prophet’s grandfather

Word : Qutb

Meaning : literally means pole. It is that perfect human being who is the cosmic and universal leader of all of God’s saints and the mediator between the divine and human realms. His presence is necessary for the continued existence of the world.


 
4.4 The Prophet Muhammad (s) as Messenger and Teacher Download Topic

Word : Al-Amīn

Meaning : the truthful 

Word : Al-Muʿallim

Meaning : the teacher 

Word : Rasūl

Meaning : messenger of Allah 

Word : Seal of the Prophets

Meaning : the last of the prophets 

Word : Al-Tabīb

Meaning : doctor for people’s souls and hearts 


 
4.5 The Prophet and his Relationships Download Topic

Word : No new vocabulary to add

Meaning : No new vocabulary to add 


 
4.6 The Prophet’s Sunnah and Hadith Download Topic

Word : Sanad

Meaning : Chain of oral transmission   

Word : Sunnah

Meaning : Sunnah are the sayings and actions of the Prophet   

Word : Chain of oral transmission

Meaning : Relating a word or sentence to another person by word of mouth, and then that person relating it to someone else. 

Word : Hadith

Meaning : A report concerning the saying or action of the Prophet that has been orally transmitted to later generations.


 
4.7 Ghadīr and Arafah: The Two Last Sermons of the Prophet Download Topic

Word : Ghadīr

Meaning : Pond which the Prophet (s) delivered his last sermon in 

Word : Arafa

Meaning : Location where the Prophet (s) delivered his sermon concerning the crisis of human relationships 

Word : Mawla

Meaning : Master of the Muslim Ummah 

Word : Taqwa

Meaning : Piety and consciousness of God 


 
4.8 Jesus and Mary in Islam Download Topic

Word : Isa

Meaning : Jesus 

Word : Maryam

Meaning : Mary

Word : Injīl

Meaning : Gospel

Word : Akhlaq

Meaning : Good moral character 

Word : Straight Path

Meaning : Correct path towards God 


 
 

5 The Qur'an and Hadith


 
5.1 Islam and Other Religions Download Topic

Word : Ahl al-Kitāb

Meaning : People of the book   

Word : Mushrik/Mushrikīm

Meaning : polytheist or idol worshiper   


 
5.2 What is the Qur’an? A Short Introduction to Islam’s Holy Book Download Topic

Word : Al-Lawh al-Mahfūz

Meaning : The divine tablet    

Word : Day of Arafah

Meaning : One of the last days of the Prophet where he delivered a sermon about following the Qur’an and his Ahl al-Bayt (as) sources of divine guidance and salvation.


 
5.3 The Structure of the Holy Qur’an Download Topic

Word : Shān al-Nuzūl

Meaning : Occasion of revelation for the Qur’an’s verses 

Word : Laylat al-Qadr

Meaning : Night of Power, night in which the Qur’an was revealed 


 
5.4 The Quran and Islamic law Download Topic

Word : Ijmā

Meaning : consensus of the muslim community or scholars 

Word : ʿAql

Meaning : intellect, used to derive laws from Islamic law 

Word : Istinbāt

Meaning : formal inference from Islamic law 


 
5.5 The Qur’an, Allah and Humankind Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
5.6 Hadith and Sunnah, difference and variations Download Topic

Word : Hadith Qudsi

Meaning :  Saying of Allah as related by the Prophet but not in the Qur’an 

Word : Sunnah

Meaning : The practice and tradition of the Prophet (s) 

Word : Sunnah

Meaning : Mustahabba: A recommended practice of the Prophet 

Word : Siwāk

Meaning :  toothbrush    


 
5.7 The Reliability of Hadiths Download Topic

Word : Sahih

Meaning : authentic hadith

Word : Daʿīf

Meaning : Weak hadith

Word : Tawātur/mutawātir

Meaning : Hadith that has many independent chains of transmission

Word : Chain of transmission

Meaning : A chain of narrators who relate a hadith from the Prophet or the Ahl al-Bayt (as)


 
5.8 A Reflection on Verses of the Holy Qur’an Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
5.9 Hadith al-Thaqalayn Download Topic

Word : Thaqalayn

Meaning : Two Weighty Things 

Word : Mubahala

Meaning : Imprecation


 
5.10 Imam Ali (as) and Nahj al-Balagha. Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
5.11 Taqlid and Tawḍih Al Masail Genre of Literature Download Topic

Word : Marja

Meaning : scholar whom one uses as a source of reference for Islamic law

Word : Taqlid

Meaning : process of following the rulings of a scholar whom one thinks is the most knowledgeable scholar

Word : Tawzīh al-Masā’il

Meaning : It is a book that contains all the major answers to legal issues in almost all the major areas of Islamic practice and ritual by a Marja.

Word : Minhāj al-Ṣaliḥīn

Meaning : Arabic version of Tawzīh al-Masā’il


 
 

6 Measuring Good and Bad in Islam


 
6.1 The Effects of Our Actions in this World Download Topic

Word : Khattā

Meaning : sin 

Word : Waswasa

Meaning : the devil’s whispers 

Word : Riyā

Meaning : showing-off 


 
6.2 The Gray Areas of Islamic Law and Morality Download Topic

Word : Mubah

Meaning : neutral, permissible 

Word : Makruh

Meaning : disliked by God, but not forbidden 

Word : Mustahab

Meaning : Encouraged by God, but not obligatory 


 
6.3 Heaven and Hell in Islam Download Topic

Word : Jannah

Meaning : Heaven 

Word : Jahannam

Meaning : Hell 

Word : Ghayb

Meaning : Unseen 


 
6.4 Life and Death in Islam Download Topic

Word : Subjective or relative morality

Meaning : morality that is produced by the human mind and is limited to human experience in this world only.

Word : Nihilism

Meaning : Worldview that nothing has ultimate meaning or purpose 


 
6.5 Guidance According to Islam Download Topic

Word : Sirāt al-Mustaqīm

Meaning : Straight Path  

Word : Hidāya

Meaning : Guidance 


 
6.6 Fate and the Consequences of our Choices in Islam Download Topic

Word : Qadar

Meaning : predestination 


 
6.7 The Effect of Culture and Environment in Shaping our Religious Choices Download Topic

Word : Istiqāma

Meaning :  striving towards God 


 
6.8 Major Sins in Islam Download Topic

Word : Shirk

Meaning : Polytheism

Word : Yas

Meaning : Despair 

Word : Āq al-Wālidayn

Meaning :  Disobedience to Parents 

Word : ʿIbādah

Meaning : worship

Word : Kabā’ir

Meaning : major sins


 
6.9 Why Allah Allows People to Sin Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
6.10 Repentance and Forgiveness of Sins in Islam Download Topic

Word : Tawbah

Meaning : repentance

Word : Shafa’ah

Meaning : intercession on the Day of Judgment

Word : Astaghfurallah

Meaning :  “May God Forgive Me” 


 
6.11 The Three Kinds of Rights in Islam Download Topic

Word : Haqq

Meaning : right

Word : Haqq al-nafs

Meaning : rights of the self 

Word : Haqq al-nās

Meaning : rights of others 

Word : Haqq Allah

Meaning :  rights of God 

Word : Shirk

Meaning : Associating Partners with God 


 
6.12 Sinning Against Others and their Delayed Punishment Download Topic

Word : Ghībah

Meaning : Ghībah: Backbiting  

Word : Zina

Meaning : Fornication 


 
6.13 Kufr in Islam Download Topic

Word : Kafir

Meaning : Someone who commits kufr, that is, rejects the truth.   

Word : Kufr:

Meaning : Rejecting the truth 


 
6.14 Trivializing the Harām Download Topic

Word : Tāghūt

Meaning : powers of evil, head of which is Satan 


 
6.15 Benefits of Islamic Law in this World Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
6.16 Good and Bad Deeds: The Spiritual Consequences of our Choices Download Topic

Word : Redemptive Suffering

Meaning : Suffering that either forgives us of our sins and helps us turn back to God to ask for His help. It is a suffering that helps us grow spiritually.    


 
 

7 The Legacy of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)


 
7.1 Islam and Knowledge: the Importance of Islamic Education Download Topic

Word : ʿilm

Meaning : knowledge

Word : taʿlīm

Meaning : to teach, to convey or instill knowledge

Word : tarbīyah

Meaning : to rear, to nurture someone spiritually and morally

Word : mu’min

Meaning : someone who has deep faith in God


 
7.2 The Ahl al-Kisa Download Topic

Word : Ahl al-Kisa

Meaning : The People of the Cloak, referring to the Prophet Muhammad(s), Imam Ali (as), Fatima al-Zahra (as), Imam Hasan (as) and Imam Husayn (as).    


 
7.3 Imamah in the Qur’an Download Topic

Word : Imamah

Meaning : Divine leadership


 
7.4 Fatima al-Zahrah (as) Download Topic

Word : Tasbih of Fatima al-Zahra

Meaning : Tasbih of Fatima al-Zahra

Word : Fadak

Meaning : Fatima’s garden which was gifted to her by her father (s).


 
7.5 A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam al-Hasan until Imam Muhammad al-Baqir) Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
7.6 A Brief Look at the Lives of the Imams (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq until Imam Hasan al-Askari) Download Topic

Word : Sayyid

Meaning : Descendent of the Prophet


 
7.7 A Brief Look at the Life and Importance of Imam al-Mahdi (aj) Download Topic

Word : Ghaybat al-Sughra

Meaning : The 12th Imam’s lesser or minor occultation

Word : Ghaybat al-Kubra

Meaning : The 12th Imam’s greater or major occultation

Word : Akhir al-Zaman

Meaning : End of Days

Word : Zuhur

Meaning : The 12th Imam’s reappearance at the End of Days


 
7.8 Salawat and Atonement in Islam Download Topic

Word : Salawat

Meaning : conveying blessings upon the Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt (as)

Word : Sahaba

Meaning : companions of the Prophet

Word : Allahumma Sallī ʿAlā Muhammad wa Āli Muhammad

Meaning : “O Allah, send your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the progeny of Muhammad”

Word : Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

Meaning : may the peace of God be upon you as well as His mercy and blessings


 
7.9 The Companions (Sahaba) of the Prophet According to the Qur’an Download Topic

Word : Sahabi

Meaning : companion of the prophet (s)

Word : Sahaba

Meaning : companions of the prophet (s)

Word : Muttabi

Meaning : obedient and faithful follower of the Prophet (s)


 
7.10 Clerical Hierarchies in Muslim Communities Download Topic

Word : Alim

Meaning :  Someone who possesses knowledge, i.e. cleric. 

Word : Maulana

Meaning : “Our master,” in reference to a cleric of any rank, it is a term usually used by South Asians 

Word : Ayatollah

Meaning : “Sign of God,” a highly trained cleric who is a mujtahid 

Word : Ayatollah al-Udhma

Meaning : “greater Ayatollah (Sign of God),” another name for a Marja 

Word : Hawza

Meaning : Islamic seminary where Muslim clerics are trained in Law 


 
7.11 Mosques in Islam Download Topic

Word : iʿtikaf

Meaning : practice of confining oneself to the Mosque for a number of days in order to perform religious rituals and activities. 

Word : layat al-qadr

Meaning : Night of Power, the night in which the Qur’an was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (s)   

Word : masjid al-haram

Meaning : The Kaba, it means the Sacred Mosque.   

Word : Hawza

Meaning : Islamic seminary where clergy are trained 

Word : Husayniyah

Meaning : A Husayniyah is a center of multiple purposes. It is primarily designed to be a place of mourning for the Ahl al-Bayt (as) as well as celebrating their birthdays. It is also used as a place for prayer.    


 
7.12 The Philosophy of Karbala and Majalis Download Topic

Word : Fakhr

Meaning : Haughtiness

Word : Akhlaq

Meaning : spiritual ethics, Godly and moral disposition

Word : Majalis (sing. Majlis)

Meaning : gatherings that commemorate the various tragedies that befell the Ahl al-Bayt (as), especially Imam al-Husayn (as).


 
7.13 A Brief Biography of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) Download Topic

Word : Abū Tālib

Meaning : Imam Ali’s father   

Word : Imam

Meaning : Divinely appointed leader to guide humankind 

Word : Ghadeer

Meaning :  Where Imam Ali (as) was declared the successor of the Prophet  

Word : Fatimah al-Zahrah

Meaning : Wife of Imam Ali (as) and daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (s) 

Word : Qutb

Meaning : Literally “pole,” it refers to a perfect human being who is the cosmic and universal leader of all of God’s saints and the mediator between the divine and human realms. 


 
7.14 The Battle of Karbala: A Brief History Download Topic

Word : Yazid

Meaning : Son of Muawiyah, Caliph responsible for the murder of Imam al-Husayn (as). 

Word : Karbala

Meaning : Town where Imam al-Husayn, his family and his close companions were massacred in.   

Word : Kufa

Meaning : City which Imam al-Husayn (as) headed to in order to to avoid bloodshed in Mecca and Medina.   

Word : Ashura

Meaning :  Tenth day of Muharram, the day the battle of Karbala took place and Imam al-Husayn (as) was killed.   

Word : Muharram

Meaning : First month of the Islamic calendar, the month in which Imam al-Husayn (as) was killed. 


 
 

8 Islamic Relationships, Sects and Conflicts


 
8.1 Misconceptions about Shi’ism Download Topic

Word : Takfeer

Meaning : accusing a Muslim of being a non-Muslim 

Word : Turba

Meaning : baked clay that Shia Muslims prostrate on during their prayers 

Word : Tahreef

Meaning : Distortion of the Qur’an 


 
8.2 Major Sects of Islam Download Topic

Word : N/A 

Meaning : N/A 


 
8.3 Islam and Religious Conflicts Download Topic

Word : N/A 

Meaning : N/A 


 
8.4 Islam and Rights Download Topic

Word : Haqq

Meaning : Right or Responsibility 

Word : Huquq

Meaning : Plural of haqq   

Word : Jizya

Meaning : Tax for Non-Muslims 


 
8.5 Sunnism and Shi’ism, beginnings and historical developments. Download Topic

Word : Twelver or Imami Shias

Meaning : Shias who believe in the 12 Imams 

Word : Ismaili Shias

Meaning : people who believed in the first 6 Imams, but follow a different line of Imams after Imam Jafar al-Sadiq 

Word : Proto-Sunnism

Meaning : The initial phases and building blocks of what we know as Sunnism today. Proto-Sunnism was a movement with many disparate groups that had contradicting views on law, theology and overall Islamic creed and doctrine. They were united only to the extent that they thought that the first two caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, were righteous  

Special Topics

 
 

9 Independent Topics


 
9.1 Muslim Converts – Welcome to Islam! Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
9.2 Basic Dos and Don’ts of Being a Muslim Download Topic

Word : Zabiha

Meaning : where an animal is ritually slaughtered in accordance with the rules of Islamic law and thus permissible to eat afterwards.    

Word : Tawzeeh al-Masa’il

Meaning : legal treatise by a marja where answers to queries for Islamic law can be found. 

Word : Ghusl

Meaning : Major ablution one must do, among other things, after sexual relations and when one’s monthly period. One can do it in the shower or in a pool of water.    


 
9.3 Halal Food and Zabiha Download Topic

Word : Zabiha

Meaning : Where an animal is ritually slaughtered in accordance with the rules of Islamic law and thus permissible to eat afterwards. 

Word : Hand Slaughtered Zabiha

Meaning : Animal slaughtered around the neck by hand with a knife, as opposed to a robot/machine.


 
9.4 Family, Parents and Marriage in Islam Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A 


 
9.5 Marriage in Islam Download Topic

Word : Zina

Meaning : Fornication or illicit sex 

Word : Nafaqa

Meaning : Maintenance that the husband provides his wife with   


 
9.6 Islam and Sex Download Topic

Word : Zina

Meaning : Sexual intercourse through fornication or adultery

Word : Liwat

Meaning : Homosexual acts, more specifically, the act of sodomy.


 
9.7 Modesty in Islam Download Topic

Word : Niqab

Meaning : refers to a piece of clothing that covers the face.

Word : Burqa

Meaning : enveloping outer garment that also covers the entire body, including the face.

Word : Chador

Meaning : A large piece of cloth that covers the head, upper and lower body.

Word : Khimar

Meaning : Head covering, the Qur’anic term for hijab.

Word : Hijab

Meaning : Culturally speaking, it refers to the regular hijab where only the head is covered with a piece of cloth. The rest of the body is covered with regular loose fitting clothes.


 
9.8 Women’s Menstruation in Islam Download Topic

Word : Qada

Meaning : Making up for missed prayers or fasting

Word : Istihada

Meaning : Irregular bleeding, as in irregular bleeding during menopause

Word : Had

Meaning : Menstruation  


 
9.9 Music, Alcohol, Drugs and Pork in Islam Download Topic

Word : Aql

Meaning : intellect, mind 


 
9.10 Islam and Science Download Topic

Word : Scientific Method

Meaning : "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses" 

Word : Epistemology

Meaning :  Epistemology has to do with “knowledge” and “how you know things”   

Word : Materialism

Meaning :  Materialism, also sometimes called naturalism or physicalism, is a worldview that assumes that all that exists is ultimately material. Only matter is real, anything beyond that is untrue and not real.    

Word : Scientism

Meaning : Scientism holds that the scientific method is the only way to understand existence, or at the very least, that the empirical sciences are he most “authoritative” worldview and have the most legitimate claim on truth and knowledge. 

Word : Is faith incompatible with science?

Meaning : It is incompatible if one assumes that faith means to “believe in something without evidence,” but that is not the Islamic definition of faith.


 
9.11 A Reading List of Islamic Knowledge Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A


 
9.13 Ritual Prayers and Supplications in Islam Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning :  N/A


 
9.14 Death & Burial Rituals in Islam Download Topic

Word : Salat al-Mayyit

Meaning : prayer for the dead 

Word : Ghusl al-Mayyit

Meaning : ritual washing of the dead   

Word : Kafan

Meaning : burial shroud 

Word : Salat al-wahsha

Meaning : a two rakat prayer for the departed soul on the first night of the funeral between Maghrib and Isha prayers. 

Word : Barzakh

Meaning : purgatory 

Word : Tahnit

Meaning : applying camphor on the seven areas of the body that touches the ground during prayers   

Word : Munkir and Nakir

Meaning : the two angels that interrogate you in the grave   


 
9.15 The Battle of Armageddon: An Islamic View Download Topic

Word : Dajjal

Meaning : The Anti-Christ 

Word : Sufyani

Meaning : Descendent of Abu Sufyan (Muawiyah’s father), he will kill many followers of the Ahl al-Bayt (as) towards the end of times.   

Word : Israfil

Meaning : Angel who will blow the horn and end life on earth. He will then blow it again and resurrect humankind again. 


 
9.16 The Muslim Calendar Download Topic

Word : Hijri

Meaning : The word hijri comes from the word Hijrah, which means migration. More specifically, it refers to the Prophet Muhammad’s (s) migration from Mecca to Medina when he was fleeing his assassins.

Word : Muharram

Meaning : First month of the Islamic calendar.

Word : Safar

Meaning : Safar the second month of the Islamic calendar.

Word : Rabi al-Awwal

Meaning : Rabi al-Awwal means “the first spring” and is the third month of the Islamic calendar.  

Word : Rabi al-Thani

Meaning : Rabi al-Thani means “the second spring” and is the fourth month of the Islamic calendar.

Word : Jumada al-Awwal

Meaning : Jumada al-Awwal is the fifth month of the Islamic calendar.

Word : Jumada al-Thani

Meaning : Jumada al-Thani is the sixth month.

Word : Rajab

Meaning : Rajab is the 7th month of the Islamic calendar. 

Word : Sha'ban

Meaning : The month of Sha'ban is the 8th month of the Islamic calendar.

Word : Ramadan

Meaning : The month of Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. 

Word : Shawwal

Meaning : The month of Shawwal is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. 

Word : Dhu al-Qa'dah or al-Qi'dah

Meaning : This is the 11th month of the Islamic calendar.

Word : Dhu al-Hijjah

Meaning : Dhu al-Hijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar.


 
9.17 Muslims and non-Muslims in the Shariah Download Topic

Word : izyah

Meaning : Poll tax for non-Muslims living under Islamic government

Word : Dhimmi

Meaning : Protected non-Muslim living under Islamic government

Word : Sharīʿah

Meaning : God’s revealed law


 
9.18 A Timeline of Major Events in Islamic History Download Topic

Word : N/A 

Meaning : N/A 


 
9.19 Introducing the Qur’an: Why it is the way it is Download Topic

Word : Surah

Meaning : Chapter of the Qur’an 

Word : Ayah (pl. Ayaat)

Meaning : Verse of the Qur’an 

Word : Juz

Meaning : Section of the Qur’an, there are 30 Juz in the Qur’an. 

Word : Uthmanic Codex

Meaning :  Imam Ali’s (as) compilation of the Qur’an which the Caliph Uthman spread to the Islamic world.    


 
9.20 The School of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq Download Topic

Word : N/A

Meaning : N/A 


 
9.21 Major Fields in Islamic Studies Download Topic

Word : Ilm al-kalam

Meaning : theology 

Word : Falsafah

Meaning : philosophy 

Word : Fiqh

Meaning : Islamic law 

Word : Mantiq

Meaning : logic 

Word : Akhlaq

Meaning : Spiritual ethics   

Word : Irfan

Meaning : Islamic mysticism 

Word : Usul al-Fiqh

Meaning : the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which fiqh or Islamic law is based on.   


 
9.22 The Caliphate in Sunni and Shia Islam Download Topic

Word : Caliph

Meaning : Successor of the Prophet (s) 

Word : Caliphate

Meaning : Successorship, as in the office of successorship of the Prophet Muhammad (s)

Word : Khalifah

Meaning : Caliph 

Word : Nass

Meaning :  Designation of a Caliph or Imam by God through the intermediary of the Prophet Muhammad (s) or a living Imam. 


 
9.24 Islam, Racism and Anti-Semitism Download Topic

Word : Misogyny

Meaning : prejudice or dislike of women   


 
 

10 Islam, Religion, and Modern Controversies


 
10.1 Modern Fallacies about God: where Theists and Atheists Agree Download Topic

Word : Tawhīd

Meaning : Unity and oneness of God.   

Word : Contingent being

Meaning : A being who depends on something outside of it to exist, like other beings, or space, time and matter. 

Word : Gods of mythology

Meaning : The gods in the stories of myths, like Zeus.    


 
10.2 Tawhīd: The Muslim God according to the Prophet Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt (as) Download Topic

Word : Contingent being

Meaning :  A being that exists dependently, does not exist in and of itself   

Word : Necessary being

Meaning : A being that exists independently, exists in and of itself   

Word : Objective

Meaning : Pure fact, does not depend on human opinion. 

Word : Subjective

Meaning : Depends on human senses, perceptions and opinion. Difficult to know for certain if it is 100% true. 


 
10.3 God’s Existence: The Argument From Being (Wujūd) Download Topic

Word : Māhiyah

Meaning : Whatness of things, makeup of things 

Word : Wujūd

Meaning : Existence, being 

Word : Contingent being

Meaning : exists dependently, does not exist in and of itself 

Word : Necessary being

Meaning : exists independently, exists in and of itself 

Word : Logical priority

Meaning : Priority in the chain of cause and effect, may be simultaneous or not   

Word : Temporal priority

Meaning : Priority in time 

Word : Infinite regress

Meaning : Going back in the chain of cause-effect ad infinitum   

Word : Logical absurdity

Meaning : Pure impossibility 

Word : Objective

Meaning : A pure fact, it does not depend on human opinion. 

Word : Subjective

Meaning : Depends on human senses, perceptions and opinion. Difficult to know for certain if it is 100% true.  


 
10.4 God’s Existence: The Kalam Cosmological Argument Download Topic

Word : Virtual particles:

Meaning : a disturbance in a quantum field

Word : Quantum mechanics:

Meaning :  the branch of mechanics that deals with the mathematical description of the motion and interaction of subatomic particles, incorporating the concepts of quantization of energy, wave-particle duality, the uncertainty principle, and the correspondence principle.


 
10.5 God’s Existence: The Argument From Design Download Topic

Word : Multiverse

Meaning : The multiverse is the hypothetical set of finite and infinite possible universes, including the universe in which we live.    

Word : Fine-tuning of the universe

Meaning : The idea that the conditions that allow life in the universe can only occur when certain universal fundamental physical constants lie within a very narrow range, so that if any of several fundamental constants were only slightly different, life would not be possible in the universe.    

Word : Cosmology

Meaning : The science of the origin and development of the universe. 

Word : Teleological Argument

Meaning : Another term for the argument from design    


 
10.6 The Problem of Evil, Suffering and Pain Download Topic

Word : The emotional problem of evil

Meaning : People’s dislike or even hatred of God who permits suffering in the world. They are angry that God doesn’t do anything about it.

Word : The intellectual problem of evil

Meaning : This problem sees God and evil as mutually incompatible from a logical perspective.


 
10.7 Why did God Create Us? The Purpose of our Creation Download Topic

Word : Al-Wadud

Meaning : God’s characteristic, all-loving

Word : Al-Rahman

Meaning : God’s characteristic, all-merciful

Word : Ibadah

Meaning : Worship, servitude to God


 
10.8 Why Humans Need Religion according to Islam Download Topic

Word : Deen

Meaning : Religion

Word : Dā’ina

Meaning : Old Persian word for religion, meaning way of life

Word : Īmān

Meaning :  faith and trusting relationship with God


 
10.9 Jahl and Spiritual Ignorance in Islam Download Topic

Word : Aql

Meaning : intellect

Word : Jahl

Meaning : foolishness

Word : foolishness

Meaning : fool

Word : Safaaha

Meaning : foolishness

Word : Hikmah

Meaning : wisdom


 
10.11 Do Non-Muslims Go to Hell? Download Topic

Word : Al-Jāhil al-Muqassir

Meaning : A person who rejects Islam while knowing it is the truth.

Word : Al-Jāhil al-Qāsir

Meaning : A person rejects Islam while not knowing it is the truth.

Word : Mustaʿḍaf

Meaning : In the Qur’anic sense, it sometimes refers to someone who is in a weakened position who cannot make proper decisions about the truth.